Psychiatry professor at Fribour-en-Brisgau; a resolute opponent of psychoanalysis.
Alphonse Maeder (1882-1971)
Swiss psychotherapist who was for a long while the president of the Psychoanalysis Association
from Zurich, he followed Jung after his separation from Freud; later, Maeder will develop short analysis techniques and will join himself the Oxford movement.
Carl Wernicke (1848-1905)
professor in Berlin, Breslau and Halle. He has discovered the language center from the brain. He is the author of a basic work about aphasia: Der apasische Symptomkomplex; Eine psychologische Studie auf anatomischer Basis
(Aphasic syndrome; a psychological study based on anatomy), Breslau, 1874.
Dumeng Bezzola (1868-1936)
Psychiatrist born in Grisons, one of the chiefs of the anti-alcoholic movement.
Edouard Claparede (1873-1926)
Swiss medical psychologist and educator, the founder of the Rousseau Institute from Geneva, in 1912. Together with Th. Flournoy, co-editor of the Psychological Archives.
Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926)
Psychiatry professor in Munchen since 1903 to 1922. He contributed to the systematical advancement of psychiatry, especially by distinguishing between dementia praecox
(schizophrenia) and manic-depressive psychosis. His main work, Psychiatrie, ein Lehrbuch fur Studierende und Arzte (Psychiatry, a Handbook for Students and Doctors), Leipzig, 1883, represented for a long
time an authority and has been many times republished.
Ernesto Lugaro (1870-1940)
Franz Riklin (1878-1938)
Since 1902 to 1904 psychiatrist in Burgholzli and
Jung's collaborator in his experiences concerning the free associations. Their results were published in common in 1905 and were entitled: Experimental Researches Concerning Free Associations of the Sound People. Since
1904–1909 doctor at Rheinau Clinic. Married to one of Jung's cousin; he followed Jung after his separation from Freud, but he didn't practise (psycho)analysis.
Gabriel Anton (1858-1933)
psychiatrist and neurologist, professor in Graz and Halle; known as a brain surgeon.
Gustav Aschaffenburg (1866 – 1944)
Psychiatry and neurology professor in Heidelberg, then in Halle and Cologne; since 1939,
practitioner and professor in Baltimore and Washington. His attack against Freud is included in a speech, which he held on the 27th
of May 1906 at the Congress of Neurologists and Alienists from South-Western Germany, in Baden-Baden: The Relations Between Sexual Life and the Occurrence of Nervous and Mental Diseases.
Psychiatry professor in Bale, partisan of neo-vitalism and teleology.
Herbert Silberer (1882-1922)
Viennese psychoanalyst, member of the Viennese Association since 1910, known for his works
about symbolism and the symbolism of alchemy. He committed suicide. His contribution is: Report Regarding a Method that Allows Provoking and Observing Certain Manifestations of Symbolical Hallucination, Jahrbuch, I,
2-1909. 40 years later, Jung writes: "The merit belongs to H. S., what a pity, he died prematurely, before he discovered, the first one, the secret sources that lead from alchemy to the psychology of unconscious". G.W. 14-II,
Heymann Steinthal (1823-1899)
German philologist and philosopher, often quoted by Jung in his work Psychology of the Unconscious. Steinthal was the publisher of Zeitschrift fur
Volkerpsychologie und Sprachwissenschaft (The Magazine of Psychology of Nations and Linguistics).
Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893)
French neurologist, chief-physician at Salpetriere, known for his
works about hysteria and hypnosis, he had a decisive influence upon Freud. The latest one studied with Charcot between 1885-1886, translated his lectures' textbook into German (Neue Vorlesungen uber die Krnakheiten des
Nervensystems, insbesondere uber Hysterie, Vienna, 1886, which are the translation of Lecons du mardi a la Salpetriere, Paris, 1889-1892) and gave his first name to his eldest son.
Austrian physician and physiologist, he represents, together with Freud, the author of the Studies On Hysteria, Vienna, 1895. But he remains in the history of psychoanalysis due to his
psychotherapeutical experiences with Anna O., which will be continued by Freud, who will pave the way for his revolutionary discoveries in psychoanalysis.
Joseph Dejerine (1849-1917)
Swiss neurologist, he was manager at Salpetriere, Paris.
Karl Heilbronner (1869-1914)
German psychiatrist, he managed the universitary clinic from Utrecht.
Leopold Lowenfeld (1857-1923)
Psychiatrist in Munchen, he published in 1901 Freud's work Uber der Traum (On Dream), in the Grenzfragen des Nerven-und Seelenlebens
collection, which was printed by himself together with H. Kurella. Otherwise, he included contributions signed by Freud in two of his own books; Die Freudsche psychoanalustische Methode (Freud's Psychoanalithical Method
) in Die psychischen Zwangserscheinungen (The Obsessional Psychical Phenomena), Wiesbaden, 1904 and Meine Ansichten uber die Rolle der Sexualitat in der Atiologie der Neurosen (My Opinions
Concerning the Role of Sexuality in the Etiology of Neuroses) G.W., V, in the fourth edition of Sexualleben und Nervenleiden (Sexual Life and Nervous Affections), Wiesbaden, 1906.
Neurologist in Zurich, Forel's supporter.
Born in 1903, famous psychiatrist, as well as his father, professor at Zurich University and manager at the Asylum in
Burgholzli since 1942 to 1969.
Max Isserlin (1879-1941)
Neurologist in Munchen; he was for a long time Kraepelin's assistant. He died in England where he lived as a refugee.
Medical studies in Graz, then assistant to Kraepelin in Munchen.
Otto Rank (1886-1939)
His name was initially Rosenfeld, but he changed it because of a conflict with his father.
Between 1906-1915 he was the secretary of the Vienna Psychoanalytical Society, whose protocols he was drafting. In 1907, in spring his book Der Kunstler; Ansatz zu einer Sexualpsychologie (The Artist; Essay of Sexual
Psychology) was published. He was promoted in 1912 as doctor in philosophy from the University of Vienna. Rank was the first analyst who was not a physician and was also a founding member of the Committee. He left
psychoanalysis at the beginning of 20-ties; he lived in the USA since1935 till his death.
Paul Eugen Bleuler (1857-1939)
Since 1898 to 1927, psychiatry professor at the Zurich University and manager at the
Burgholzli Asylum, succeeding his master Forel. Before this he has been manager at the Rheinau Asylum (a canton from Zurich) for 12 years. One of the great pioneers of psychiatry, especially of the dementia parecox
, which he first called "schizophrenia". Being directly influenced by the psychoanalytical method, he will have important contributions to the knowledge of autism and ambivalence. It seems that he was already receptive to
Freud's ideas since 1901, when he asked Jung to expound The Interpretation of Dreams before the doctors from Burgholzli. During his lifetime, he pleaded against alcoholism. His Lehrbuch der Psychiatrie (
Handbook of Psychiatry), Berlin (1916) still enjoys authority.
Paul Sollier (1861-1933)
Psychiatrist in Boulogne-sur-Seine.
Pierre Janet (1859-19470
Psychology professor at College
de France. He was one of the first who admitted the unconscious, but he refused psychoanalysis. Jung attended his courses at Salpetriere between 1902-1903.
Philippe (Fulop) Stein (1867-1918)
psychiatrist educated in Vienna. He took part between 1906-1907 in the associative experiences at Burgholzli, after he had met Bleuler at the International Antialcoholic Congress
from Budapest in 1905. Founder of the antialcoholic movement of Hungary. He abandoned psychoanalysis in 1913 and worked since then as a neurologist at the workers' hospital from Budapest.
Robert Eugen Gaupp
Neurology and psychiatry professor in Tubingen. Responsible editor at Zentralblat fur Nervenheilkunde und Psychiatrie.
Theodore Flournoy (1854-1920)
Swiss psychiatrist. Influenced,
as well as Claparede, by William James' thought. Jung used Flournoy's works, particularly Frank Miller's case in his Psychology of the Unconscious, as well as his researches upon a medium published in From the India to
Wilhelm Fliess (1858-19280
Berliner otho-rhyno-laringologist, best friend of Freud before 1900 - according to Jones, vol. I, chapter XIII, and Freud: Birth of Psychoanalysis. After
breaking off their relationship, Freud adopted a very critical attitude towards Fliess' scientific work, (which was) to a high degree speculative.
Wilhelm Jensen (1837-1911)
German playwright and
novelist, born in Holstein, who was of a very wide reading at his time. One of his short stories, Gradiva, published in Schriften zur angevandten Seelenkunde, fasc. I, Leipzig and Vienna, 1907, was
psychoanalytically commented by Freud in his work Delusion and Dreams in Jensen's Gradiva.
Wiener Vereinigung fur Psychoanalyse (Vienna Psychoanalytical Society)
Freud's disciples were solitary meeting
in his waiting room under the auspices of the Wednesday Psychology Soiree. In 1909, the group became the Vienna Psychoanalytical Society. Since 1910, the meetings took place at the doctors' seminar. (See also Hermann
Nunberg's introduction to the minutes - Minutes of the Vienna Psychoanalytical Society, ed. H. Nunberg and E. Federn, New York, 1962).
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
Psychology and physiology professor in
Leipzig, his famous works in the field of experimental psychology foretell Jung's associative tests.
< to be continued >